It is a rapidly acting drug, targeting the asexual stage. The mortality rate has increased along with the spread of malaria. p H of food vacuole of plasmodium specie is acidic while chloroquine is a weak base, leading to change in p H of food vacuole. More effective for long term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis as devoid of long term adverse drug reactions, especially eye changes. Use of chloroquine is declining recently due to the fact that most strains have become resistant. It rapidly enters and gets concentrated in food vacuole, present within erythrocytes. If we want to avoid relapse, Primaquine is used to eradicate tissue schizontal activity. Previously used for chemoprophylaxis, now due to development of resistance, chloroquine is not used. Anti-amoebic effect –infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica) Amebic liver abscess (as chloroquine is concentrated in the liver) because: Used for long time for rheumatoid arthritis, but because of associated ocular adverse effects, precaution is taken to have eye examination every 4 to 6 month to check retinal changes. Hydroxychloroquine recurrent miscarriage Plaquenil et pilule Plaquenil effects on eyes Chloroquine mechanism of drug action and resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Slater AF1. Author information 1Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030. Quinoline-containing drugs such as chloroquine and quinine have had a long and successful history in antimalarial chemotherapy. THIS communication describes an investigation of the effects of chloroquine treatment on the ultrastructure of Plasmodium berghei in the mouse and rat, and of P. cynomolgi in the rhesus monkey. Hours ago And there are almost certainly several modes of action at work, which will go on to have different effects in different human tissues, etc. Both chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are used. Plasmodium develops, multiplies and transforms by utilizing hemoglobin of human erythrocytes. Inhibits phospholipase A2 (used rheumatoid arthritis), chemotaxis is decreased, resulting in decreased proliferation of antigen. Primarily highly effective against febrile illness, relief is quickly achieved within 24 hours. CRTF Another gene involved is chloroquine resistance transporter factor (CRTF) 4. When administered, patient becomes afebrile within 24-48 hours. Resistance has developed in Afghanistan and Khyber Pathtunkhua. Mode of action of chloroquine Chloroquine - FDA prescribing information, side effects., Mode of Action of Chloroquine on Plasmodium berghei and P. Plaquenil maculopathy oct of macula Mechanism of action Chloroquine inhibits the action of heme polymerase in malarial trophozoites, preventing the conversion of heme to hemazoin. 11, 15, 16 Heme is toxic to Plasmodium species. 11 Chloroquine - DrugBank. Chloroquine, Past and Present In the Pipeline. What is the mode of action and use of chloroquine in.. Chloroquine resistance is associated with a decrease in the amount of chloroquine that accumulates in the food vacuole, the site of action for chloroquine. The mechanism for this decreased accumulation is controversial. Some studies have shown that the decrease in drug accumulation is due to an increase in drug efflux. In this study we formulate an analytical model describing different combinations of the two sets of hypotheses described below, the first related to the mode of chloroquine binding to HM, the second to the mechanism of action of the mutated PfCRT. Mechanism of action of chloroquine. Entry into the parasitized RBCs; 1. Accumulation in food vacuole of the parasite- role of pH gradient chloroquine trapping Affects asexual cycle of plasmodium specie. Once administered, it has to enter site of action. It rapidly enters and gets concentrated in food vacuole, present within erythrocytes.